Saturday, December 7, 2019
Question: Discuss about the Hospitality Management for Orientation Procedure. Answer: Orientation Orientation is the procedure by which an employee is introduced to their new jobs as well as the work environment. Orientation helps the new employees to get adapted to their new company as well as to their colleagues. The orientation process mainly explains the rules related to the work to the new employees. An orientation provides benefits to the employers as well as the employees. The orientation conducted by a company helps to build a solid relationship between the company and the employees (Denhardt et al., 2013). The process by which I was oriented in my new organization that is Empire tavern included the covering of the basics. I was introduced to the fundamentals of the company and I was acknowledged about the new rules and regulations of the company. The human resource department mainly conducted this process where I was clearly explained about the basic information of the company. The human resource department provided an overview regarding the safety as well as the accident avoidance issues. They also gave a brief about the salary structure and the incentives as well as the other benefits (Melton Hartline, 2013). The HR department also discussed about the policies related to dress code. During the orientation procedure, all my documents were verified that included the voter id proof as well my academic qualification proof. I completed the necessary paper work that was provided by the organization. During the orientation procedure, we were all demonstrated the task that we require to perform. After the completion of the orientation process, the operation was taken into consideration so as so check whether the process taught in the orientation can be checked (Bailo et al., 2015) At the end of the first week I found the found the orientation procedure beneficial as I gained a lot of information about my company. With the help of the orientation procedure I was acknowledged about the policies and the procedure of the company. At the end of the first week I had a clear and transparent understanding of the core business of the company. I am also aware about the safety requirements as well as the policies, which are required to perform the job securely. I am also recognizable with the policies of the company that includes the holidays, absenteeism as well as the time of the vacation. With the help of the orientation, I also had a clear idea about the wage structure and the process of incentives that I will be able to earn if I can perform well. It became easier for me at the end of the first week to identify the location where the equipments are kept which I require during my work (Gong et al., 2013). Situational Reflection The three situations, which provided me with a learning experience, are as follows: 1. Quiz Though Empire Tavern is well known for its Tuesday quiz, there can be some problem from the side of a customer participating in the quiz. In a quiz competition generally there are two parties who take part. However, many situations take place in which any of the either thinks that the other party is getting the benefit in the form of easier questions. In that case it might lead to a conflict between the two groups as one of the groups might feel cheated. As a part of the organization, it is my duty to make the group understand that the questions are of the same standard for both the parties. However, the group, which has the full knowledge about the questions, will be able to answer. With this situation I will be able to handle situation in which I have to please both the groups without upsetting any one. I will look into the fact that the quiz is conducted in such a manner that both the groups are able to enjoy. The Empire Tavern is reputed entertainment revenue and being a part of the organization, it is my duty to maintain the reputation of my organization. 2. Live Music Empire Tavern is known for entertaining the customers with the live music, however there are situations where an individual might not like the music that is being played. So in that case the customers might get disappointed and might think of going to some other place. Music is something that can make anyone happy, however, in this case if the situation takes a different turn it is my duty to handle it (Wrigley Emmerson, 2013). Being an employee of the organization, it is my duty to make the customers understand that the music they are looking for is not available as the singer who is singing the song prefers only light music. However, their favorite music will be played after the singer has completed singing the song. With the help of this situation I will be able to learn how to handle the customers who are not happy with the service (Chen, 2014). 3. Customer Service The customers are the most important part of a restaurant as they are the one who helps an organization to grow. In the case of the customer service, the first impression is the last impression. A poor customer service might ruin the reputation of the business. It also happened with me when the customer did not like the food that was served (Gilmour et al., 2013). As a result, the customer became irate and I had to handle the situation so that we can please our customer. Sometimes it does happen that the customers are at fault because many a times they order for a food without having any knowledge about the type of food they have ordered. However, it is most of the time the misunderstanding that leads to such hassle. Customers should only be handled carefully without any problem so that the organization can prosper. As we know the more customers we will get the more will be the profit of the organization. Personal Growth While working in the organization, I did experience many new opportunities and I also learned new knowledge. The work experience helped me to differentiate myself, which is very essential in a workplace. While working in the organization, I became more aware about my self-reliance skills that are I can now aware about my strengths as well as weaknesses. I am able to increase my industry skills as well as the knowledge that is in turn helping me to develop more as an employee. The marketable knowledge, which I developed, included leadership, teamwork, customer awareness as well as problem solving skill. Even though we were given training on the way we need to execute our work (Appelbaum, 2013). In todays world, the knowledge and the information are as important to the business as that of the raw materials. While working I gained knowledge about the stuffs I did not know. I learned how to produce rugby protective and why it is so important for the players. I have always learned that a learning worker is valuable to an organization as the person can easily adapt himself to the changing working environment. I also gained information about the different types of process that are used while making the cuisine. Before joining the organization, I did not have much knowledge about the types of cuisine. The world of business is also continuously changing, as there are many innovative technologies that are coming into force. Since I am a new worker it was very challenging for me and the factors that contributes to the culture of the workplace includes a broad range of written as well as unwritten codes. The organization in which I am working has a lot of written terms as well as conditions that are related to taking breaks and also the starting and the ending time of the job. In the beginning I really faced problem as I was not able to finish the food within the specified time period (Rademakers, 2012). The experience, which I came across in the new organization, is as follows: 1. Dress Code Though in the beginning of the orientation, it was clearly told that we need to follow a formal dress code that is the restaurant dress code, I did make the mistake of wearing a casual jeans on Wednesday because of which I had to undergo some punishments. The experience was not good and it was totally my fault that I forgot about the dress code (Mowday et al., 2013). 2. Colleagues The organization in which I was working had the system of providing a buddy to the new comers. As a result, I always felt comfortable as my buddy used to accompany me to lunch and he always used to provide me with support whenever I needed. As a result, whenever I found it difficult to understand any job process my buddy always helped me. Therefore, I gained a deeper knowledge about the work structure and the new culture of the company was easily engrossed by me. I was totally involved in the new organization by my colleagues who were already working there for a long time (Burke, 2013). My colleagues helped me to deal with the customers and also to answer their queries regarding the food items. They also helped me to prepare food trays for the customers who are new. The colleague helps by working as a team and as a result they help me to improve the flow of the work as well as the customer service. 3. Latest Technology The latest technology, which I experienced in Empire Tavern was that the customers were able to order the food online with the help of their IPad even if they are waiting for their flight. The mode of payment has also changed due to the innovation of new technology. The latest technology has enhanced my experience as it has led to the productivity of the worker. The technology that is customer focused has a positive impact on the productivity of the employees. The latest technology is known to create dismissal as well as happiness among the customers who visits the place. I have to take the care of the organization so as to look forward to the welfare of my organization. It has also been taught in the orientation that we have to responsible towards the well being of the company that I need to maintain (Choudhary, 2013). References Appelbaum, E. (2013). The impact of new forms of work organization on workers.Work and Employment in the High Performance Workplace,120. Bailo, M., Baena, S., Marn, J. J., Arredondo, J. M., Aura, J. M., Snchez, B., ... Falcn, L. (2015). Procedure for the systematic orientation of digitised cranial models. Design and validation.Forensic science international,257, 516-e1. Burke, W. W. (2013).Organization change: Theory and practice. Sage Publications. Chen, M. (2014, January). The effect of training on employee retention. InInternational Conference on Global Economy, Commerce and Service Science, Amsterdam, Atlantis Press. Choudhary, R. (2013). Latest technology: an engine to create a high performing organization (A case of hospitality industry).EXCEL International Journal of Multidisciplinary Management Studies,3(10), 201-208. Denhardt, R. B., Denhardt, J. V., Blanc, T. A. (2013).Public administration: An action orientation. Cengage Learning. Gilmour, P., Borg, G., Duffy, P. A., Johnston, N. D., Limbek, B. E., Shaw, M. R. (2013). Customer service: differentiating by market segment.International Journal of Physical Distribution Materials Management. Gong, Y., Zhou, J., Chang, S. (2013). Core knowledge employee creativity and firm performance: The moderating role of riskiness orientation, firm size, and realized absorptive capacity.Personnel Psychology,66(2), 443-482. Melton, H. L., Hartline, M. D. (2013). Employee collaboration, learning orientation, and new service development performance.Journal of Service Research,16(1), 67-81. Mowday, R. T., Porter, L. W., Steers, R. M. (2013).Employeeorganization linkages: The psychology of commitment, absenteeism, and turnover. Academic press. Rademakers, T. (2012).Activiti in Action: Executable business processes in BPMN 2.0. Manning Publications Co.. Wrigley, W. J., Emmerson, S. B. (2013). The experience of the flow state in live music performance.Psychology of Music,41(3), 292-305.
Saturday, November 30, 2019
Kohls was selected by Businesslike as one of the best places to launch a career for new college graduates. With more than 1000 stores, we are one of the fastest- growing retailers in the country, and were continually introducing great new brands such as LLC Lauren Conrad, Dana Bushman, Simply Vera Vera Wang, ALLEY, Food Network. The best part is that our growth meaner unlimited opportunities for you. If you are looking to start your career at a fast-paced retailer, what better place to start than at Kohls with store locations from Coast to Coast. Our store management internship program is rapidly growing, providing over 300 interns this summer the opportunity to gain experience in the field of management while at the same time allowing each intern to embrace Kohls culture and Core Values. If you have a creative mind, strong leadership skills, and want big responsibilities in a short amount of time, now is your chance to check out Kohls. We will write a custom essay sample on Store Management Internship Company Profile or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Position Summary: The Store Management Internship Program is a 10 week Summer program running from June 6 to August 12, 2011. This internship is designed to give you the knowledge ND experience needed to explore what an exciting career in retail management is all about. Our Training Program consists of the following: computer based training, hands-on sales floor training, executive development, and exposure to all areas of the Store. You will also be provided with multiple opportunities to enhance your experience through exposure to senior level leadership, a Kohls Executive Roundtable Discussion, and more! As an intern with Kohls you will be treated as part of the management team and learn the principles of what it takes to run a successful detail business. If you enjoy working with people and engaging in several dynamic roles, or if you are a high-energy person, who tends to get bored easily sitting at a desk all day long, a career in store management is sure to challenge and excite you. In addition to several training modules and daily store management responsibilities, each intern will complete an Impact Analysis Project. This project is your opportunity to research a specific area or opportunity within your training store and solve a problem or offer ideas for improvements. You will present your Impact Analysis Project to Senior Executives at the completion of your ten weeks. As Kohls intern, you are given big responsibilities and the opportunity to shine! What to Expect: Full Time career opportunities upon successful completion of the Internship Program An opportunity to be a Campus Ambassador for Kohls to assist in college recruiting on your campus * *Select campuses only Competitive wages Exposure to Senior Level Management; including District and Regional Managers Mentors Program with former Interns Hands-on experience with In-Store Merchandising, Management Development, Sales, Store Operations, Scheduling, Payroll, and Human Resources Opportunity to visit and analyze the competition Continuous performance feedback Impact Analysis Project to demonstrate skills gained throughout the Internship Required Qualifications: Anticipated graduation date between DCE 2011 Gag 2012 Pursuing a Bachelors degree in Business, Communication, or related field Must be able to work full time between the dates of June 6 August 12, 2011 Authorization to work in the U. S. Without sponsorship Strong analytical, leadership, and communication skills
Tuesday, November 26, 2019
Coso and Basel Essays Coso and Basel Essay Coso and Basel Essay Financial Collapses and Regulations New England College of Business In an era of risky investments and failed financial institutions, additional importance is being placed on businesses implementing Enterprise Risk Management (ERM) plans. ERM is defined by the Institute of Internal Auditors (2012) as an approach designed to identify, quantify, respond to, and monitor the consequences of potential events implemented by management. Without an ERM plan, transparency to shareholders and internal accountability are nearly impossible to achieve. COSO and Basel are both reactive frameworks to increased regulatory changes that forced institutions to show more transparency to their financial reporting, in order to manage operational risks, mitigate the likelihood of a collapse, and ensure stability in volatile market conditions (Farnan 2004; Balin 2008); these measures increase confidence in investors. This comparative analysis of COSO and Basel seeks to indentify common measures that are necessary to form a functional ERM plan, the most important being the accountability of management and its communication with the Board (The New Basel Accord 2003). A Comparative Analysis of ERM Guidelines: COSO I/II and Basel I/II Introduction Due to the epidemic of failed financial systems seen over the past decade, agencies and private organizations (e. g. , Securities and Exchange Commission, NICE, etc. ) have set in place guidelines for the standardization of reporting and evaluating risk in an effort to eliminate surprise collapses in the future (NICE Systems Ltd. 2012). Alexander Campbell, Editor, Operational Risk Regulation, states that regulatory approaches are changing and requiring companies to streamline processes for monitoring internal risks at a company, such as fraud (NICE Systems Ltd. 2012). Common goals of organizing committees trying to tackle regulatory challenges are to improve communication between the board and management, increase shareholders confidence, and most importantly, for entities to thoroughly evaluate their liquidity so that in the event of a crisis, investors assets are secured (Bressac 2005; Decamps, Rochet, Roger 2003). This comparative analysis of COSO and Basel identifies the standards these documents set for institutions to maintain an Enterprise Risk Management (ERM) plan, as well as the affects these documents shortcomings and constraints have on entities which apply either COSO or Basel. Enterprise Risk Management (ERM) is defined by the Institute of Internal Auditors (IIA) (2012) as an approach designed to identify, quantify, respond to, and monitor the consequences of potential events implemented by management. It is important for all parties affiliated with an institutions ERM plan to clearly identify and understand the events that impact a companys value in order for the entity to achieve its objectives (IIA 2012). The frameworks COSO and Basel both attempt to be reactive solutions to public events in which lack of an adequate ERM plan has contributed to a collapse of a major institution or market which had a detrimental affect on the public (Farnan 2004; Lall 2009). Both documents have been explored by many key opinion leaders in the financial industry, and while each provides a set of guidelines for developing successful ERM protocols, each also fails to be foolproof. Shaw (2006) provides the argument that while the COSO standard was groundbreaking at the time, it was not meant to be a marking guide for controls. Moreover, in regards to Pillar 3 of the Basel Accord which depicts methods of Value-At-Risk (VAR) calculations, Standard and Poors noted that although these VAR methods appear to offer mathematical precisionÃ¢â¬ ¦they are not a magic bullet (Lall 2009). COSO and Basel can be seen as a significant step forward for the times (Saurina and Persaud 2008). Basel In 1974, the Basel Committee of Banking Supervision (BCBS) was created (consisting of the G10 plus Luxembourg and Spain) in light of the challenges from an increasingly internationalized banking system (Lall 2009). In the 1980s, it became clear (post-Latin America Debt Crisis, 1982) that a process was needed regulate the international banking system to mitigate risk and manage losses (Lall 2009). The first Basel Accord and Basel II, referred to as Basel, is a method of risk management, specifically for financial institutions operating on a multi-national level, that sets minimum capital requirements (8% of adjusted assets (Decamps, Rochet, Roger 2003)) that these institutions must uphold to minimize the risk of a collapse in the international banking system (Lamy 2006). Basel I, the first international accord on bank capital was established in 1988, by the BCBS (Finance Development 2008), with the goal to arrive at significantly more risk-sensitive capital requirements with the primary objective in line with ensuring stability in the international banking system (Lamy 2006). In 2004, Basel II was introduced, with amendments in response to the Quantitative Impact Study, QIS 3, (published in May 2003), an increase in the amount of capital banks must set aside for high-risk exposures, and changes from feedback from banks on Basel I (Finance Development 2008; Lamy 2006). The Basel framework is focused on three pillars: a minimum capital adequacy requirement, supervisory review, and market discipline (Decamps, Rochet, Roger 2003). Basel I was highly criticized for having a one size fits all approach to formulating institutions risk-weighted assets (with insensitivity to emerging countries), in addition to unrealistic capital requirements that discouraged even reasonable risk taking (Kaufman 2003). In response to these critiques, BCSB began to draft Basel II, in which the amendments to Pillar I (310 out of ~350 pages of the document (Balin 2008)) were most notable. Balin (2008) describes the menu of various options that Basel II encompasses for Pillar I, which allow institutions to choose the most suitable options dependent on a series of factors (i. e. , size, rating, etc. ). The minimum capital requirement pillar focuses on the least amount of capital a bank must maintain to be protected from credit, operational, and market risks (Ahmed and Khalidi 2007). In Basel II, the highly critiqued credit risk requirements were modified to decrease the one size fits all stigma of Basel I (Kaufman 2003). Additionally, Basel II takes into account loopholes found in Basel I that enabled banks to maintain their desired level of risk while cosmetically assuaging to minimum capital adequacy requirements, which was done mainly through a transfer of assets to holding companies and subsidiaries (Balin 2008). Similar to COSO framework, the first pillar of Basel seeks to unite various types of risks into an overall evaluation of capital requirements to safeguard shareholders and investors. Pillar 2, the Supervisory Review, is meant to insure that banks have adequate capital to support all the risks in their business including, but not limited to, the calculations in Pillar 1 (Kaufman 2003). This Pillar clearly defines of obligations of supervisory oversight against extreme risk taking; of note in this Pillar is line 680, which states: Supervisors are expected to evaluate how well banks are assessing their capital needs relative to their risks and to intervene, where appropriate. This interaction is intended to foster an active dialogue between banks and supervisors such that when deficiencies are identified, prompt and decisive action can be taken to reduce risk or restore capital (The New Basel Capital Accord 2003). The four principles of Pillar 2 seek to hold the supervisors responsible for implicating processes, reviewing, setting expectations, and intervening when warranted in regard to management of capital risks (The New Basel Capital Accord 2003). Pillar 3 seeks to protect against changes in asset prices (market risk) (Balin 2008), which is an addition to the credit risk factors of Basel I. Using the Value-At-Risk (VAR) model, banks were able to determine the probability of a portfolios value decreasing by more than a set amount over a given time period (Lall 2009). Critics of the VAR model, such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF), claim that it fails to account for extreme market events and assumes that the processes generating market events were stable (Lall 2009). COSO In July 2002, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX) was passed with the goals of increasing investor and public confidence in the post-Enron era and increasing management accountability, among others (Farnan 2004). Section 404 of SOX states that effective for some large companies, beginning December 31, 2004, a separate management report on internal control effectiveness and audit by the organizations external financial statement auditor is required (Farnan 2004). COSOs framework lays out a path for developing efficient operations and regulatory compliance methods, and has been established as the framework recommended by agencies such as the SEC for public companies to base their financial reporting on (Farnan 2004). The Committee of Sponsoring Organization of the Treadway Commissions (COSO) is comprised of five private organizations in the financial industry (COSO Web site 2012). The COSO organization was established in 1995 with the mission to provide thought leadership through the development of comprehensive frameworks and guidance on enterprise risk management, internal control and fraud deterrence, and attempts to enhance success and leadership, and minimize fraud in company reporting (COSO Web site 2012). Since its establishment, COSO has published frameworks aimed at helping publicly traded companies cope with tough new monitoring requirements mandated by the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (Shaw 2006), and to help businesses manage risk, by looking at business units as an entire entity, designed to improve organizational performance and governance and to reduce the extent of fraud in organization (COSO Web site 2012). The COSO framework is a cube comprised of four (three in COSO I) company objectives perpendicular to eight (five in COSO I) factors that together form a risk assessment program for which companies can reduce risks by realizing the amount of capital needed for consequences (Bressac 2005). Similar to Basel, COSO dictates that the board is responsible for overseeing managements design and operation of ERM (Bressac 2005). One factor that COSO framework includes is the measurement of a companys risk appetite, the amount of risk, on a broad level, an entity is willing to accept in pursuit of value (Rittenberg and Martens 2012). Many objectives that management sets for their company (i. e. , increase market share, win competitive tenders) include a substantial amount of risk, and COSOs strategic decision-making framework allows managers to present the objectives in relation to appetite to the Board for approval (Rittenberg and Martens 2012). Conclusions Both COSO and Basel were drawn to effectively respond to new implications (Sarbanes-Oxley Act (Shaw 2006) and new laws capital requirements for banks (Lamy 2006), respectively), and each have principles that can help institutions manage ERM more effectively. For example, The New Basel Capital Accord (2003) clearly articulates that setting a minimum amount of available capital resources is a vital element of the strategic planning process, and the three pillars devise a plan to do this. Bressec (2005) claims that COSO II framework articulates a way for managers to effectively deal with the events that create uncertainty for entities and create responses to minimize potential losses. COSO and Basel were both released in the infancy stage and flawed. Samad-Khan (2005) observed that COSOs creditability is diminished because consequences are predicted to occur much more frequently than had been historically recorded in the past. Supporters acknowledge that Basel II has arcane ideas, but defend that its still a step in the right direction because it increases financial oversight and makes sure banks wont be doomed by crises of confidence (Coy 2008). It is important to note that while COSO and Basel offer much protection against quantitative risk assessments, they must be coupled with the knowledge and insight of senior risk managements to be most efficient (Lall 2009; Samad-Khan 2005). Moreover, both COSO and Basel also provide constraints that limit the amount of risks institutions can endure, sometimes excessively. Pall (2009) discusses one failure in Basel II as the ability for developed-nation banks to skew their reports to their desired results, at the expense of their smaller and emerging market competitors and, above all, systemic financial stability. Samad-Khan (2005) emphasizes that historical data is still the most reliable way for companies to determine the probability for risk to occur. Start-ups will not have this historical data, therefore may overestimate their probability of risk using the likelihood x impact = risk calculation (Samad-Khan 2005) and miss out on potentially positive opportunities. Others against the provisions claim that both documents (e. g. , Basel in the Emerging markets) implement concessions that constrain potential growth by overcompensating for potential consequences and depleting lending capital for banks, which in the 1930s contributed to the Great Depression (Coy 2008). Historical events depict the need for more stringent regulatory guidelines in this era of financial market uncertainty. The most important common factor of Basel and COSO are that each clearly states that it is managements responsibility to have a functional ERM plan in place, and be in communication with the Board about potential risks that the company faces (Bressec 2005; The New Basel Capital Accord 2003). Holding management accountable for the risks the business takes, while making sure that the Board is in agreement with managements plan creates a necessary harmony of a checks and balances system, in turn creating a safer landscape for shareholders and the public to place faith in. When properly executed,
Friday, November 22, 2019
A Case Study In Chinese Independent Secondary Schools Education Essay This study is to examine the role of leadership in teacher professional development in Chinese Independent Secondary Schools in Klang Valley. The specific variables that will be investigated include teachersÃ¢â¬â¢ perceptions of teacher professional development; teachersÃ¢â¬â¢ expectations as well as the principalÃ¢â¬â¢s role in facilitating teacher professional development. Developments in leadership will lead to changes in the ways teachers work. These will subsequently increase the need to review teacher professional development. The purpose of this research is to establish how the dual of the principal and the teachers manifests itself in professional development. This research will be significant as it will examine the voices of teachers on how leadership contributes to teacher professional development. The research will be conducted using qualitative methodology. It will be based on a case study of two Chinese Independent Secondary Schools in Klang Valley. Data will be c ollected using questionnaires and follow up interviews which will be administered to elicit responses from principals, deputy principals and teachers in both schools. The findings will reveal the need for teachers in Chinese Independent Secondary Schools in Klang Valley to engage more in teacher professional development programmes in order for them to have a better understanding of the concept. This study will also demonstrate if teacher professional development should be the core work of both the principals and teachers in order to create a learning environment in their schools so that both can develop professionally. Based on the results obtained in this study, we will determine if Chinese Independent Secondary Schools in Klang Valley need more awareness in teacher professional development and how it will influence the leadership. Keywords: Leadership, Principals, Teachers, Teacher Professional Development, Teaching and Learning 1.0 INTRODUCTION Having been a teacher for ten years and now majoring in educational management, I am very much interested in finding out the effects of school leadership on the professional development of the teachers in the Chinese Independent Secondary Schools in Selangor. Chinese Secondary Independent Schools are solely governed by The United Chinese School Committees Association of Malaysia (UCSCAM) which coordinates the curriculum used in the schools and organizes the Unified Examination Certificate (UEC) standardized test. Generally teachers are not employed through the professional teachers training colleges in Malaysia rather they are appointed through individual school administration which is governed by the directors (share holders) of the school as they are not governed by any central system therefore school management is based on the individual school superiors. As a teacher from a Chinese Independent Secondary School, I had been involved in various professional development programmes in school. These programmes were mos tly conducted during school hours and often during the school holidays. Thus it is my interest to find out how the school leadership contributes in molding and producing teachers who are as competent as the trained teachers by the Teachers Training Colleges under the Malaysia Education System. This is because this will determine whether the Chinese Secondary Independent Schools are producing individuals who are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and physically balanced and harmonic, based on a firm belief in and devotion to God, in line with the goals of the Malaysian National Philosophy of Education.
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Comparing and Contrasting 4 states in Middle East - Essay Example Crane was in favor of a Palestinian state, and made several declarations in contra of the Balfour Declaration, which called for the creation of the Jewish state. Israel was actually the brainchild of Theodore Herzl, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦who founded the Zionist political movement.Ã¢â¬ 2 Ã¢â¬Å"On 29 November 1947, the United Nations (UN) General Assembly voted in favor of [Partition Resolution (UN Res. 181)]Ã¢â¬ ¦replacing the British mandate with two independent statesÃ¢â¬ ¦The UN partition resolution laid down a timetable for the termination of the British mandate and for the establishment of [both] Jewish [and] Arab state[s]Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ 3 Relations between the West and the Middle East were not always entirely contentious. In the McMahon-Hussein Correspondence between Sir Henry McMahon (the British High Commissioner in Egypt) and the Sharif of Mecca (Hussein bin Ali), the two men discussed the political future of the Middle EastÃ¢â¬âMcMahon encouraging an Arab revolt within the Ott oman Empire, since it had sided with Germany as an ally. Speaking of the Middle East, the Masjid-e-Suleiman was The Mosque of SolomonÃ¢â¬âthe site where a large amount of oil was located. Palestine was a former British colony. Lebanon was a former French colony. The Druzes migrated due to the civil war in Lebanon in the 1860s. The Maydan Quarter of Damascus and the Druze was basically a riot over grain that led to a rise in Arab nationalism in Syria. In Turkey, Syria, Iraq, and EgyptÃ¢â¬âthere were a bunch of Ã¢â¬Å"Accommodationist NotablesÃ¢â¬ , wealthy prominents who were considered to have stakes in controlling mandates in the Middle East. With the advent of the Bombing of the King David Hotel (carried out by Irgun, which, like Lehi was a Zionist paramilitary organization), there were Britons, Arabs, Jews, and others killed. What had happened was that Irgun had been given a mandate by a man named Moshe Sneh. He ordered his men to dress upÃ¢â¬âone man as a Sudanese, ot her men as ArabsÃ¢â¬âin order to pass security. Someone warned the Palestine Post that the bombing was about to occur. Also, the French consulate was apparently warned in advance. However, the appropriate warnings did not go off in the Hotel, which was owned by Jewish nationals. The bombing lit off a firestorm in Britain. The bombing was decried, and Irgun was called a terrorist organization. This was done partly because Zionist Jews wanted to make a statement against a Nazi-British alliance. Anti-Jewish sentiment was also strong in Britain, and BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s occupancy of the Palestinian state only served to deepen the divide between Britain and what would one day become Israel. In fact, the Irgun organization would one day have their members absorbed into the state of IsraelÃ¢â¬â¢s Likud party, which has somehow been involved in every major election in Israel since the early 1950s. Speaking about divisions of land in the Middle East, The Sykes-Picot Agreement was basically an Anglo-French agreement post-World War I that followed a previous agreement which carved Syria, Kurdistan, Acre, and Haifa between Russia, Britain, an unnamed Arab state, as well as Palestine. The pilfering of land would not be unique to the Middle East, however. Operation Barbarossa was Nazi GermanyÃ¢â¬â¢s invasion of Soviet Union territory in 1941, Hitler claiming that his people needed more space. Hitler would continue to invade most of Western Europe and a large part of Eastern Europe. However, when he tried to march against Russia, his soldiers found themselves not
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Reform - Essay Example Majority of the largest pro-temperance groups in all nations have been females, often as component of what others pertain to as feminism. The powerful temperance advocacies of the early years had most of their aids in females who were not agreeing to the potential life risks and threats connected with excessive alcohol consumption, and the big share of family profits that are being eaten up by it, which was particularly very difficult to hold for poor families. In most countries, informal social management in the household and societies supported to maintain that the excessive consumption of alcohol can not be accepted. As the communities expanded from rural communities into modernized societies, alcohol consumption trends started to develop as well. As modernization unfolded its impacts on all kinds of people, financial development and modernization were accompanied by the existence of poverty, lack of job opportunities, and violence. These existing social dilemmas were often connected to alcohol abuse. Social advocacy over excessive alcohol consumption reduced significantly, anti-drunkenness policies became timid and alcohol dilemmas grew significantly (Tarrow 5). The future of some Temperance movements all over the world seemed positive even if their members where mostly young people and women, which advised temperance rather than the total abolition of alcohol. But most of the leaders where not determined in their efforts, and these resulted to the downfall of these movements. Due to the connection between alcohol abuse and crimes even within householdsÃ¢â¬âmost drunkard husbands performed unthinkable violence within their families-- the temperance movement became present hand in hand with different female rights and other organizations, involving the progressive organization, and most of the time the similar advocates were included in all of the organizations mentioned. Most past advocates of anti-slavery became
Saturday, November 16, 2019
War On Iraq And The Bombing Of Pearl Harbor Essay In July of 1941, Japanese assets were frozen in America, and the consequent cessation of shipment of oil, scrap iron, and other goods from the United States, Japans economy was in most severe straits and her power to wage war directly threatened and her ability to make war was becoming severely threatened by the ongoing embargoes against her. Japanese military planners estimated that reserves of oil, painfully accumulated in the late 1930s when the risk of just such a squeeze became evident, would last at most two years by which time it would be far too late to make a stand, militarily, against the United States in China or elsewhere. Somehow, Japan had found its way to a no good choices scenario, with acquiescence to American demands dooming Japan to a less than coequal status with the worlds dominant powers, or war with the United States sooner than later before supplies dwindled below practical abilities to make war. (Russett, 1997, p. 46). Diplomatic efforts proved useless when The United States, and the British and Dutch, would end the embargoes only as a response to Japanese withdrawal from air and naval bases in Indochina; and at this time the Japanese military began to consider war with the U. S. inevitable. Most of the Japanese elite were opposed to any settlement which would in effect have meant withdrawal from China which would also mean the increase of Western, particularly American influence, in precisely those ares which Japans ruling castes believed were the natural provinces of the Japanese Empire. (Russett, 1997, p. 47). While the Japanese military planned for war, the American government also planned for an escalation of hostilities: By autumn 1941, however, opinion was crystallizing in the highest levels of the American decision-making system this process was leading to war. Roosevelt informally polled his cabinet on the question of whether the country would support war against Japan and the result was that All members responded in the affirmative; with public support behind the war, conflict with Japan seemed immanent. (Russett, 1997, p. 50) By the beginning of December their attack was irrevocably set in motion. The Japanese conviction that war could not be limited to the British and Dutch had to be based wholly on inference. Yet it was a correct analysis and a solid conviction, as shown by the otherwise inexplicable risk they took at Pearl Harbor the attack ensured American popular support for the war in the Pacific, just as the moral argument against Hitler in Europe worked to fuel public support for the American entry into World War Two. (Russett, 1997, p. 51) Although ambiguity persists in the public perception of the contribution of the United States intelligence services to the build up toward the Iraqi War, official statements by high-ranking intelligence officials who served during the time period in question maintain a specific position: that the U. S. possessed credible information that Iraq maintained an arsenal of weapons of mass destruction and these weapons posed a potential threat to America. In point of fact when classified intelligence reports surfaced in 2002 which seemed to indicate that the United States had no reliable evidence before hostilities that Iraq possessed weapons of mass destruction. (Official Rebuts Story of, 2003, p. A03). The question as to whether or not the war can be considered a fall-out of bad intelligence then, would seem to be a non-starter. The simple facts, despite leaked report of 2002, are that the intelligence agencies, including the CIA and the DIA posited and maintained the position through the buildup and afterward that Iraq posed a threat to the U. S. and that Iraq possessed illegal weapons of mass destruction. Since no weapons were found, there was obviously and most tragically a profound failure of intelligence. A failure so profound, in fact, that the blame for a catastrophe involving potentially hundreds of thousands of deaths and untold trillions of dollars should lie squarely on the intelligence gathering agencies who so grossly mishandled their responsibilities and led America into an unnecessary and dearly costly war. Works Cited Decosse, D. E. Authority, Lies, and War: Democracy and the Development of Just War Theory. Theological Studies, 67(2), 378+. (2006). Official Rebuts Story of Iraq Intelligence Shortcomings; Says Leaked Classified Report Was Misread regarding Weapons Program. The Washington Times, p. A03. (2003, June 7). Russett, B. M. No Clear and Present Danger: A Skeptical View of the United States Entry into World War II. Boulder,Colo. : Westview Press. (1997).